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We set out to explore the likelihood of disease spread from infected planting stock, and to establish how long ago this might have happened on sites which had a documented history of planting and subsequent management.

In 2013, Forestry Commission England Plant Health surveyed ash stands planted from 1991 onwards for the presence of symptoms consistent with The survey identified a number of sites that were unlikely to have established from windborne inoculum but where disease appeared to have been present well before the first confirmed findings in 2012.

All sites also contained a number of standing dead trees, many of which had cankers indicative of infection prior to death.

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The sites shown in Figure 1 comprised one in Devon, one on the Derbyshire/Leicestershire border, one in Northumberland and three in East Anglia where ash dieback symptoms were relatively widespread in 2012.

Sites selected in East Anglia consisted of two neighbouring sites in Norfolk and one in Suffolk.

However, at that time frost and drought were implicated as the cause of the symptoms and a biotic causal agent was not identified and named until about a decade later (Kowalski, 2001, 2006). Initially disease symptoms on trees include foliage necrosis but infection then progresses from affected leaves and rachises (petioles) into shoot or stem tissue, killing the cambium and phloem and forming characteristic diamond-shaped lesions which can completely girdle affected branches and stems.

To complete its life cycle then sporulates by producing fruit bodies (apothecia) during summer months formed mainly on the rachises of fallen leaves infected the year before but also occasionally on infected dead shoots, stems and root collars of young ash trees in ground contact (Gross was first identified in February 2012 in southern England on nursery stock that had been imported from the Netherlands (Sansford, 2013).

These wider environment findings indicated the early stage of an epidemic was underway, so a systematic survey of ash across the UK was undertaken in November 2012.

It identified a total of 184 infected sites; 114 in the wider environment and 55 associated with recent plantings plus 15 nursery sites (Clark and Webber, 2017).

With sites planted in the 1990s up to the mid-2000s, especially those located in more isolated areas, infection from windblown spores originating from outbreaks in neighbouring European countries appears very unlikely.

Therefore, although ash dieback disease may have established in the UK as result of airborne inoculum of from mainland Europe, disease foci were also likely to have been initiated from infected imported stock in some parts of the country.

L.) planted at six sites over the past 20 years was investigated.

Three geographically isolated sites (Northumberland, Leicestershire and Devon) were compared with three sites in established areas of ash dieback in East Anglia, and the causal pathogen, , confirmed at all.

Evidence of the year of planting and the trees source was sought for each of the selected sites.

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